What do the parties want to do to defend women's rights

What do the parties want to do to defend women's rights

There are 125 voluntary murders with female victims recorded by the Ministry of the Interior in the period from 1 August last year to 31 July 2022. Among them, more than half were killed by their partner or former partner, in a family environment. The issue of violence against women has been a hot topic for some time now, which also brings with it other important rights such as termination of pregnancy, access to work and specific health care for purely female diseases. This and more is discussed in all center-left and center-right electoral programs, with the exception of Italexit, with a different degree of detail. Still in the spotlight and clearly polarizing is the right to abortion.

People's Union Possible Democratic Party 5 Star Movement Lega Italia Viva-Action Italexit Forza Italia Brothers of Italy + Europe Green Europe-Italian Left On abortion in Italy there are those who do worse than the Marches. And what the party programs say After Chiara Ferragni's story that sparked the Brothers of Italy, the analysis of the numbers by the journalists who, with civic access, requested information on conscientious objection from all Regions. And the political proposals in view of the elections of 25 September Popular Union The party of the former mayor of Naples, Luigi De Magistris, approaches the issue of women's rights in two ways: legislative and local. Popular Union requires the full application of both the Istanbul Convention, an international treaty against violence against women and domestic violence born in 2011 and never fully applied in our country, and the law 194 of 1978 on voluntary termination of pregnancy. On this last point, De Magistris's party takes sides against conscientious objection, as it damages the right to self-determination of women, and in doing so also centers the point of the question: law 194 is not in itself effective if it is not accompanied by the lowering of the percentages of conscientious objection throughout the Italian territory. From a survey carried out last year by the journalist and computer scientist Sonia Montegiove and the bioethicist Chiara Lalli, it emerged that 72 out of 100 hospitals have between 80 and 100% of doctors who are conscientious objectors.

As far as the local plan is concerned, Up focuses on strengthening the territorial network of Anti-violence Centers and the establishment of shelters for women and LGBT people + victims of violence in every city.

Possible A very broad program on many topics is Possible, which is also exhibited at length on women's rights. Starting from a known fact, namely that women are assigned most of the part-time contracts to meet the needs of a second job, that of care, the party proposes an expansion of the offer of welfare services for assistance. to children and the care of non self-sufficient family members. Following the lowering of the tampon tax to 4%.

The program of Giuseppe Civati's party also speaks of policies to support the victims of violence, anti-violence centers and shelters. Of particular interest is the creation of a protocol between government and law enforcement that aims to ensure the possibility of reporting gender-based violence without being discriminated against or stigmatized; as well as the establishment of a ministry of equality (with portfolio) to be entrusted with the task of implementing gender policies, and annually drafting a national framework strategy against gender and lgbt + violence.

As we will also see in the electoral proposals of other parties, Possible aims to recognize parental leave equal between men and women for a period of 4 months from the birth of the child. Also Possible provides for the full implementation of the Istanbul Convention. On the subject of abortion, the proposals are among the most concrete in the electoral panorama: for Possible 60% of health personnel should not be objector; the 7-day period prior to termination of pregnancy should be eliminated except in urgent cases; obligation to publish, for hospitals and clinics, annual data on the presence of non-objecting personnel. Finally, the party also talks about a ban on public funding for organizations that somehow hinder the right to choose a woman in matters of pregnancy, and the extension of the right to surgical abortion up to 14 weeks.

In the wake of what was decided in Spain, Possible proposes the modification of the Italian penal code in order to insert the principle of sexual consent: any non-consensual sexual act would be punishable by law. Similarly, the party also proposes non-specific measures to regulate the instrumental use of women's bodies in the practice of gestation for others. In terms of employment, especially in terms of pay, Possible promises transparency and publicity on the remuneration received by men and women in each company, placing the burden on the employer to justify any pay difference.

The request for amendment to article 80 of the already much discussed Procurement Code is also specific but difficult to implement, so according to Possible private actors cannot participate in public tenders if there is gender pay discrimination . As well as the other parties present in the race for the elections, not even Possible has provided a budget which illustrates the financial coverage for the achievement of these proposals.

Democratic Party The protagonists of the third part of Enrico Letta's Democratic Party program, together with young people, are women. Therefore, full recognition of the sexual and reproductive rights of women, guaranteeing the application of Law 194 in its entirety. Without giving the voter specific definitions of the proposals on the subject, the Democratic Party talks about an extraordinary plan for female employment, starting from the law on wage equality introduced in 2021 following the proposal of the rapporteurs of Chiara Gribaudo and Valeria Fedeli. As for the other parties then, in general, Letta's party also agrees on the introduction of a law on co-parenthood and on parity between maternity and paternity leave.

Movimento 5 Stelle In the schematic program electoral of the Pentastellato Movement by Giuseppe Conte there are some points already seen up to now such as wage equality between men and women, and the equalization of paternity and maternity leave times.

Regarding the measure introduced after quota 100, the Woman Option, which provides for the early exit from the world of work for women aged at least 58, the Cinquestelle propose an extension also in 2023. However, the measure is already under consideration and will probably be reconfirmed albeit with some changes. The Cinquestelle movement also places on the plate the strengthening of measures to combat all forms of violence against women, including the mandatory use of electronic bracelets for those who exercise violence. Then two tax reliefs for the hiring of unemployed and pregnant women.

In Italy there are over 70 hospitals where more than 80% objectors to abortion This was revealed by a survey by Chiara Lalli and Sonia Montegiove, which has become the book Mai data. At sportsgaming.win the authors the obstacles to obtaining the data. The map of the Lega structures Matteo Salvini's party approaches the issue in a different way than the political forces of the center-left and, in part, also those of the center-right. The role of women in Italian society for the party can be condensed into two macro themes: family and work. Lega speaks of "implementing policies that accompany the family, and protect it from ideological attacks", and of intolerance towards "a country where women are forced to choose between motherhood and work". Examining the electoral program we discover how these two macro themes are intertwined with each other, and do not give effective space to the rights of women unrelated to them.

Salvini's League proposes to strengthen measures in favor of motherhood, going to intervene also on policies that allow the balance between work and family. That of denatality is a real struggle for Salvini, to be countered by proposing an unspecified "welcome kit" for each new born, and by encouraging the introduction of a family flat tax: according to this principle, all the school expenses of children can be deducted, regardless of how many children a family has. For women who instead "give birth and take care of at least 4 children", a lifetime exemption from income tax is envisaged. Maternity is also seen here under another lens, the fiscal one: in addition to the two measures mentioned above in Salvini's program, the zeroing (or reduction) of VAT on diapers and milk powder, erroneously called tampon tax.

The program also emphasizes the condemnation of practices such as surrogacy, against which the party proposes the institution of an international crime. The document also speaks in a generic way of "defense and promotion of the culture of life"; of funds intended to make women desist from the practice of voluntary termination of pregnancy for economic reasons; the possibility of early retirement based on the children born and raised. As for violence against women, the League's program talks about the goal of zero feminicides, proposing two solutions. Assign an escort to women victims of stalking, and red flag arrest for those who do not comply with the precautionary measures imposed by the Red Code law (Law 69 of July 2019 on violence against women and vulnerable people). For the health sector, the League proposes screening days for female diseases, including endometriosis and vulvodynia, at the center of the national debate in recent years.

On the subject, the Lega then divides the program into two parts, with all the previous measures intended for Italian women or women with Italian citizenship and other measures for immigrant women, mostly second generation Muslims. The two party proposals revolve around the need to counter the radicalization of second generations, and the need to make Muslim women autonomous through school.

Italy Viva-Action Among the proposals of Matteo Renzi and Carlo Calenda in the field work there are equal pay, the recognition of parental leave for both parents, post-maternity incentives for women who return to work within a year and, in general, many other incentives for maternity-related expenses. Also in this case, no expense coverage is specified on this point.

The program also talks about an increase in anti-violence centers on the national territory, with an estimate of one center for every 10 thousand inhabitants for each region. As mentioned by the 5 Star Movement, the duo Renzi Calenda is also committed to approving the measures proposed by the outgoing Draghi government on the subject, including the use of the electronic bracelet on the perpetrator of the crimes of threats, injuries and stalking.

Italexit In the party's program there are no direct references to women's rights.

Forza Italia In the list of criminal reforms proposed by Silvio Berlusconi's party there is also the need to introduce more effective safeguards for women victims of violence, but nothing more. In the paragraph of the program dedicated to families, including single-income, in addition to the implementation of the Family Act, there is a proposal for tax relief for companies that hire new mothers and women "of childbearing age".

Fratelli d'Italia In the program of Fratelli d'Italia, the leader Giorgia Meloni speaks of "full application of law 194/78", as well as the establishment of a fund for women who are unable to complete the pregnancy for economic reasons. Also on the plate is an update of the Code Red legislation, especially in terms of defense tools for the victim. No to surrogacy. In the working context, the party proposes equality in access to work between men and women and the fight against the gender pay gap. To complete the picture of proposals, Giorgia Meloni's party also talks about the pink tax, expressing opposition to the increased cost of some women's products sold on the market.

+ Europe Public and corporate welfare adapted to family needs is among the important points of Emma Bonino's party on the issue of women's rights. As for companies, here too + Europa proposes the addition of the obligation of transparency on salaries and in general on the number of women in the company. In the public, on the other hand, + Europa proposes that the ministry of the family and equal opportunities carry out a mapping of the institutions and bodies governed to understand their female presence. Here, too, compulsory parental leave for both parents.

Green Europe-Italian left Italy is a woman is the paragraph that the two parties dedicate to the figure of women: also in this case violence against women is condemned, and some interventions are proposed against economic disparity in the workplace and the application of the ILP 190 Convention on harassment and violence in the workplace. Among the other proposals, there is also the need to favor the removal of the perpetrator rather than the isolation of the victim of violence.

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